Milano: Franco Angeli. The proposal of a therapeutic alliance characterized by a variable pattern over the course of treatment is also examined. Keywords: alliance measures, evaluation of psychotherapeutic process, outcome of psychotherapy, therapist/patient relationship, therapeutic alliance, working alliance, Citation: Ardito RB and Rabellino D (2011) Therapeutic alliance and outcome of psychotherapy: historical excursus, measurements, and prospects for research. Holmes, S. E., and Kivlighan, D. M. (2000). Clin. 3. (1998) propose some methodological changes to increase the utility of research findings, namely, omitting the use of methodological “control” techniques with comparisons between groups, re-evaluating single-case research, reconsidering the use of longitudinal studies, and using systematic replication and meta-analysis to guarantee the generalizability of results, even with single cases. New York: Oxford University Press. Relations of the alliance with psychotherapy outcome: findings in the Second Sheffield Psychotherapy Project. La ricerca in psicoterapia: storia, principali gruppi di lavoro, stato attuale degli studi sul risultato e sul processo. By establishing a therapeutic alliance, the therapist then seeks to provide patient-centered care, in which the therapist as seen as a facilitator for the patient to achieve their goals, rather than an authority figure. This accounts for the difficulties associated with the concept of alliance, which is built interactively, and so any assessment must also consider the mutual influence of the participants.  |  Psychol. Menu Verywell Mind Future research requires longitudinal studies with larger samples that include pan-theoretical, well-validated alliance measures to determine causal predictor variables. This latter study compared 57 clients, diagnosed with major depression and receiving either psychodynamic–interpersonal or cognitive–behavioral therapy: the cognitive–behavioral sessions were rated as having better therapeutic alliances than the psychodynamic ones. (1989). September 1993; Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 61(4):561-73; DOI: 10.1037//0022-006X.61.4.561. Numerous studies have shown that the therapeutic alliance is one of the strongest predictors of treatment outcomes. Negotiating the Therapeutic Alliance: A Relational Treatment Guide. For example, poorer insight and previous sexual abuse were associated with worse client-rated alliance, whereas baseline negative symptoms were associated with worse therapist-rated alliance. These were seen as the ideal conditions offered by the therapist but were later shown to be specifically essential for client-centered therapy (Horvath and Greenberg, 1989; Horvath and Luborsky, 1993). J. Randomized Controlled Trial of Adjunctive Social Cognition and Interaction Training, Adjunctive Therapeutic Alliance Focused Therapy, and Treatment As Usual Among Persons With Serious Mental Illness. Kivlighan and Shaughnessy (2000) distinguish three patterns of therapeutic alliance development: stable alliance, linear alliance growth, and quadratic or “U-shaped pattern” alliance growth. Elvins, R., and Green, J. According to Horvath and Luborsky (1993), the concept of therapeutic alliance can be traced back to Freud’s (1913) theorization of transference. Clin. Group Psychother. Short psychotherapy interventions (four sessions). Br J Clin Psychol. 47, 362–371. 51, 32–37. Greenson, R. R. (1965). Psychol., 18 October 2011 Cohesion, alliance and outcome in group psychotherapy. Rev. Tracey, T. J., and Kokotovic, A. M. (1989). Consult. A Primer for Transference Focused Psychotherapy for the Borderline Patient. J. Consult. eCollection 2019. Horvath, A. O., and Symonds, B. D. (1991). Clin. Patterns of helping alliance development and outcome. (2000). J. De Roten et al. Svensson, B., and Hansson, L. (1999). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance and client variables in individual treatment for schizophrenia spectrum disorders and early psychosis: Narrative review. Alliance and outcome in late-life depression. Comparison of therapeutic factors in group and individual treatment processes. When it's there, you know that your therapist is there to help you, no matter how hard the going gets. Attention has recently turned toward the role of the therapeutic alliance in the various phases of therapy and the relationship between alliance and outcome. 47, 475–497. None of their findings suggest that any one instrument was a stronger predictor of outcome than the others, in relation to the type of therapy being considered. Psychol. (1994). Di Nuovo, S., Lo Verso, G., Di Blasi, M., and Giannone, F. (1998). J. Marital Fam. 15, 239–246. On links to other constructs, determinants of its effectiveness, and its role for research in psychotherapy in general. The relationship between adult attachment style and therapeutic alliance in individual psychotherapy: A meta-analytic review. Furthermore, research into the relationship between the process and outcome of psychotherapy has frequently attempted to explain the non-specific factors theorized by Strupp and Hadley (1979) which can have a significant impact on the outcome of different treatments. The therapeutic alliance might be the most important part of beginning a psychotherapy. Examined the relationship between this dimension and outcome in a New key a. And Wampold, B. E. ( 1989 ) refer to cohesion as predictors of drug and alcohol treatment! Set of features ( 1996 ), M. K. ( 2000 ) process of therapy outcomes session: to... The previous dichotomy between the creation of counterintuitive studies is therefore recommended components of the working alliance as therapy. 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